Oulu forex trading

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0, Journal of Stock & Forex Trading, -, -, -. 0, Nursing and Midwifery Studies, -, - 0, University of Oulu. 0, University of Tartu. Hsu, Taylor & Wang () investigated the profitability of technical trading rules in the forex market by analyzing 30 currencies over a. We are the leading Nordic foreign exchange (FX) market maker with the best-in-class automated FX offering. HOTFOREX BONUSES FOR ARMY Press y to Linux as a relay role allows cycles for non-transactional. This allows admins a privileged position images and the. We review the peer-to-peer architecture, no agents or centralized. TechRepublic Premium content helps you solve a remote management.

We consider the daily closing prices of the following currencies against dollar;. A single data point represents the amount of currency that can be purchased by spending 1 US. The main reason for the selection of the data set is based on the availability of the data. On many websites such as coindesk, USD-BTC data is only available from 18 July , therefore, we select the starting date to be 1 Jan , and in the process data set consists of complete 8 years. Euro and yen data is obtained from Yahoo!

Table 1 reports various statistics for the data. For the sake of comparison, we take a holistic view of the whole data set by reporting the statistics for the 8 years 1 Jan —31 Dec In the following we describe a selected set of algorithms that are used in our study. The motivation behind the selection of the algorithms from the literature is rooted in the performance of the algorithms. Further, in order to make the comparison meaningful, two widely used techniques from finance namely variable length moving average , and fixed length moving average are also considered.

Reservation price algorithm calculates a threshold price and generates a buy signal when the offered exchange rate is less than or equal to the threshold. In the following we present the selected set of reservation price algorithms considered for our study. El-Yaniv et al. Let e t be the current exchange price. Algorithm 1 provides formal description for El-Yaniv reservation price algorithm for generating buy and sell signals respectively.

The authors critiqued the assumption of fixed values of m and M and argued that inter-day price fluctuation is not arbitrary but is instead governed by inter-day price fluctuation function as shown in Eq 1. The formal description of algorithm is given in Algorithm 2. The perceived exchange rank is calculated based on the current rank x t of the offered exchange rate e t in all the exchange prices observed so far. The formal algorithm is presented in Algorithm 3. T represents the number of days in a trading period, L T t and H T t are the thresholds for buy and sell signals respectively and are computed as shown in Eqs.

Note that P T t is the expected difference between the buy and sell prices if the optimal strategy is followed at t , and is calculated as shown in Eq. Note that R T is the expected final rank of e t for selling, if an optimal strategy is followed starting from time t , and is calculated as given in Eq. Moving average MA rule is the simplest and popular technical analysis trading rule.

The basic idea of MA based rules is to generate buy and sell signals based on the short vs long-term moving averages. More specifically, a buy signal is generated when the short term moving average cuts the long term moving average from below. On the contrary, a sell signal is generated when the short-term moving average cuts the long-term moving average from above. However, in a market the crossing between short-term and long-term moving averages can occur on multiple instances in a short period, resulting in a large number of buy and sell signals Zhu et al.

The resulting large number of signals are hardly profitable and can force a large transaction fee as well. To avoid this, a minimum threshold called band is introduced. The band introduces a specific percentage difference between the short and long term moving averages in order to generate buy and sell signals. Algorithm 4 describes variable length moving average strategy for buy and sell signals.

In VLMA a buy signal is generated when the short term moving average cuts the long term moving average taking into account the band value from below, i. A rule is represented by the combination of three values S length of short-term moving average , L length of long-term moving average , B band. For instance, VLMA 5, 30, 0. FLMA works on the same principle as stated in Algorithm 4.

Any signal generated during the holding period is ignored. In BH an investor executes the buy transaction on the first day of the investment period and holds the position until the last day T. On the last day, a sell transaction is executed to complete the trading.

The formal description of buy and sell signals of BH algorithm is given in Algorithm 5. We test the profitability of the algorithms for various parameters and for various durations. We consider short term moving averages over 5 and 10 days, long term moving averages over 15, and 30 days, and band values 0.

Likewise, we consider 15 and 30 days durations for Algorithms 1, 2, 3 and 5. Thus we have a total of 16 variants of algorithms to evaluate. Table 2 presents a summary of the selected algorithms and their variants. Let D 0 j be the initial amount of dollars at the start of a trading period j , and D T j be the final amount of dollars at the end of the trading period j. Assuming that there are P trading periods or trades , we define the geometric average trading period return GPR P as;.

Initially we do not consider any transaction fee and report our findings based on zero transaction fee. The transaction fees are based on coinbase—one of the popular online services dealing in buying, selling and storage of bitcoins. Coinbase charges a minimum of 1.

However, the exact value varies based on the mode of payment. For instance, for payment via credit card the transaction fee is 3. We compare the geometric average period returns of the 16 strategies see Table 2.

It is also important to mention that returns are only calculated for trading periods when at least one buy transaction is followed by a sell transaction. For situations, where only buy or only sell signals are generated, no returns are taken into account.

We calculate geometric average trading period return for each trading rule based on Eq. It must be noted that we do not consider any transaction fee in this case. A further analysis of the data reflects that the returns are strategy dependent as well. Another interesting observation is the number of resultant positive and negative returns.

Note that an GPR of at least 1 is termed as a positive return. For BTC , out of 16 strategies, 11 are positive. For Euro and Yen , the corresponding number of positive returns strategies are 16 and 15 respectively. To answer the question, we analyze Table 3 , and identify the best performing algorithm for each asset.

We also consider the trading period length, and summarize the results in Table 4. FLMA 5, 15, 0. It is interesting to note that for each asset, a unique algorithm is adjudicated as the best performing algorithm. Further, analysis reveals that KT and BH are the worst performing algorithms for all the three data sets.

For Euro , the returns of KT and BH are positive though worst among all , and for Yen the returns are positive except for KT 30 which is marginally less than 1. On average, VLMA 10, 30, 0. The tests were performed on the returns of algorithms for BTC considering 15 and 30 days trading duration.

For VLMA 5, 15, 0. However, except for FLMA 5, 15, 0. We record the number of buy and sell signals, as well as the number of completed transactions. A transaction is completed when for a buy signal the corresponding sell transaction occurs.

Figure 1 summarizes the number of buy, sell and completed transactions. This is logical as VLMA based strategies do not have any holding period and are free to generate a signal if the corresponding criterion is met. Buy and hold has the highest number of completed transactions as it does not generate buy and sell signals based on some predefined criterion, but instead buys on the first trading day and sells on the last trading day irrespective of the offered exchange rate.

We investigate completed transactions from the perspective of positive vs negative returns for BTC. We define a transaction to yield positive returns if the sell price is higher than the buy price, i. RP has Figure 2 is a graphical summary of the positive and negative returned transaction for BTC. Transaction fee can be a vital factor in the profitability of any trading algorithm. We observed an average reduction of 3. This also reflects that for variable length moving average strategies to be profitable the band value is vital.

For smaller band values, the strategies might not be profitable. We evaluated the short term profitability of BTC over a set of reservation price and moving average based algorithms against the euro and the yen for a period of 8 years. Based on the average GPR , BTC seems less profitable venture than the yen; however, a deeper analysis revealed that the answer the profitability is strategy dependent as well.

This confirmed BTC as an attractive investment opportunity for a short term investment. It is also shown that the selected set of algorithms beat the buy and hold approach except on the yen where the returns of KT are less than that of buy and hold. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to evaluate the profitability of BTC using a set of trading algorithms and against fiat currencies. Future work can include finding an optimized portfolio of fiat and crypto-currencies for short and long term investment.

Competing Interests The authors declare there are no competing interests. Author Contributions Contributed by Iftikhar Ahmad conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, performed the computation work, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, and approved the final draft.

Muhammad Ovais Ahmad conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, and approved the final draft. Mohammed A. Data Availability The following information was supplied regarding data availability:. PeerJ Comput Sci. Published online Feb 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Iftikhar Ahmad: kp.

Received Sep 10; Accepted Nov This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. Abstract Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin BTC have seen a surge in value in the recent past and appeared as a useful investment opportunity for traders.

Keywords: Algorithmic trading, Bitcoin, Cryptocurrencies. Introduction Cryptocurrencies have seen a surge in the recent past. Research Questions and Data Set Research questions We formulate a set of research questions RQ , which essentially provide a base for the data analysis.

Data We consider the daily closing prices of the following currencies against dollar; i. Open in a separate window. Reservation price algorithms Reservation price algorithm calculates a threshold price and generates a buy signal when the offered exchange rate is less than or equal to the threshold. Moving average based rules Moving average MA rule is the simplest and popular technical analysis trading rule.

Table 2 Summary of the selected algorithms and their variants. Which asset is the most profitable in terms of geometric average period return? Table 3 Geometric average trading period returns GPR of trading strategies. Table 4 Highest GPR achieved for the assets. Algorithms VLMA 5, 15, 0. Algorithms VLMA 10, 30, 0. Figure 1. Figure 2. How the transaction fee effect the profitablity of algorithms? Figure 3. Conclusion We evaluated the short term profitability of BTC over a set of reservation price and moving average based algorithms against the euro and the yen for a period of 8 years.

Supplemental Information Supplemental Information 1 Code and data: Click here for additional data file. Funding Statement The authors received no funding for this work. Additional Information and Declarations Competing Interests The authors declare there are no competing interests. Contributed by Muhammad Ovais Ahmad conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, and approved the final draft.

Never ever believe in free tips and say no to whatsapp group, telegram group or even From the complete novice who is just starting to think about trading as a viable Work from Home Jobs Walthamstow. Day trading is making short-term trades, lasting less than one day, in an attempt to extract a profit from the financial markets.

Wyckoff SMI. Top Forex tips and tricks from institutional Forex Traders. Understanding how the FTSE market works When fx trading tips and strategies it comes to knowing how to trade the FTSE , the first step is to understand how the market works. Euro live bitcoin data in excel Trading Tips. The 25 strategies in this futures options strategy guide are not intended to provide a complete guide to every possible trading strategy.

Day Trading Tips Learning a simple yet effective trading strategy like price action analysis is one of the best forex trading tips you could ever get.

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What are the Benefits of Forex Trading? Low Transaction Costs. Spreads are usually low, making forex trading relatively cheap. However, you should look into all associated costs when choosing a broker, as some may also charge a flat fee or variable commission. A hour Market. From Monday morning in Australia to the Friday afternoon close in New York, the forex market never sleeps.

Forex Trading is not subject to the opening hours of any centralised exchange system. Benefit From Leverage. In forex trading, a small deposit can control a much larger total contract value. Leverage gives the trader the ability to make nice profits, and at the same time keep risk capital to a minimum.

The arrangements in the Forex markets provide investors to lever their original investment by as much as 20 to 30 times and trade in the market. This can magnify both gains and losses. High Liquidity. Liquidity refers to the ease with which an asset can be bought or sold with a limited effect on its value. The global scale of foreign exchange combined with the high volume and hour activity, make the forex market the most liquid market in the trading world. This is an advantage because it means that under normal market conditions, with a click of a mouse, you can instantaneously buy and sell at will.

Trading Options Forex markets provide traders with a wide variety of trading options. Traders can trade in hundreds of currency pairs. They also have the choice of entering into spot trade or they could enter into a future agreement. Futures agreements are also available in different sizes and with different maturities to meet the needs of Forex traders.

Demo Accounts. Most online forex brokers offer demo accounts to practise trading and build your skills, along with real-time forex news and charting services. By simulating a live trading environment, demo accounts give you the chance to get used to a trading platform, familiarise yourself with market movements and develop a risk management strategy, all without making any financial commitments.

Create your Account. If you want to become a manual Forex Trader, you must first create a traders account on ZuluTrade. Choose a platform. Start trading. After completing all of the previous steps, you are now ready to trade. Demo accounts are excellent for testing out trading strategies and practising trading without risking any funds. Features of our Forex Trading Platform.

Technical Charts and Indicators. The Automator. A prized feature on ZuluTrade is The Automator. The Automator allows you to build rules at the Settings tab of your Forex account. Integration With Automated Trading Software. Interface Forex trading software places trades automatically based on the occurrence of the desired criteria. The software should have the necessary connectivity to the broker s network for placing the trade or direct connectivity to the exchange to send the trade orders.

What is the difference between forex trading and stock trading? Is forex trading profitable? How to get into forex trading? What are forex trading hours? What is the best forex trading platform? This website uses cookies. You can read about our cookie usage. By closing this banner or continuing to use the website, you accept our use of cookies as described in our Cookies Policy. Supported Brokers. Contracts for difference CFDs , allow traders to buy go long or sell go short , and make profit or loss from price movements, without having to physically purchase and exchange the underlying currency.

FX is quoted in pairs, with each representing a global currency or economy. To put it simply, traders would go long if they believe that the base currency will rise in value against the term currency and would profit from an increase in price. This pip value is used to determine the PnL profit or loss , based on how many pips you gain or lose in a trade, and is also used to display spread the difference between the bid and ask prices.

In FX currency trading, fractional pricing allows us to offer tighter spreads and provide more accurate pricing. Diversify your investment portfolio by trading CFDs on more than just Forex. EN English. Create Live Account.

Need Help? Visit our Help Section. Login Register. Quick access. Sell Buy. The most popular FX pairs involve major global currencies and experience the highest trading volumes and liquidity. Show pairs with fixed spread. Forex Majors Forex Minors. Why trade with FxPro.

Learn more about our execution model. Up to 7, orders executed per second. Ultra-low latency datacentre co-location.

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This is an advantage because it means that under normal market conditions, with a click of a mouse, you can instantaneously buy and sell at will. Trading Options Forex markets provide traders with a wide variety of trading options. Traders can trade in hundreds of currency pairs. They also have the choice of entering into spot trade or they could enter into a future agreement.

Futures agreements are also available in different sizes and with different maturities to meet the needs of Forex traders. Demo Accounts. Most online forex brokers offer demo accounts to practise trading and build your skills, along with real-time forex news and charting services. By simulating a live trading environment, demo accounts give you the chance to get used to a trading platform, familiarise yourself with market movements and develop a risk management strategy, all without making any financial commitments.

Create your Account. If you want to become a manual Forex Trader, you must first create a traders account on ZuluTrade. Choose a platform. Start trading. After completing all of the previous steps, you are now ready to trade. Demo accounts are excellent for testing out trading strategies and practising trading without risking any funds.

Features of our Forex Trading Platform. Technical Charts and Indicators. The Automator. A prized feature on ZuluTrade is The Automator. The Automator allows you to build rules at the Settings tab of your Forex account. Integration With Automated Trading Software. Interface Forex trading software places trades automatically based on the occurrence of the desired criteria.

The software should have the necessary connectivity to the broker s network for placing the trade or direct connectivity to the exchange to send the trade orders. What is the difference between forex trading and stock trading?

Is forex trading profitable? How to get into forex trading? What are forex trading hours? What is the best forex trading platform? This website uses cookies. You can read about our cookie usage. By closing this banner or continuing to use the website, you accept our use of cookies as described in our Cookies Policy. Supported Brokers. Help Center. Trading Hours. Video Tutorials. Trading Guides. Investors' Guide. ZuluTrade EU Guide. Send Feedback. About Us. Privacy Policy.

Risk Disclaimer. Terms Of Service. Contact Us. Affiliate Program. Affiliates Program Guide. Trader Program. Automate your trading strategies with low latency Equinix virtual private server from Beeks FX. Stay on top of upcoming economic events and the latest data figures.

The foreign exchange market FX as a whole, consists of many types of markets, including Spot FX, Future derivatives, Forward Derivatives, and finally the CFD derivatives market, which is the most popular for retail clients. The FX CFD derivatives market is made up of buyers and sellers, the main participants being large international banks, who place orders via electronic trading systems. This market is traded OTC not traded on any regulated exchange and as such there is no uniform price but each of the main international banks is providing its own quotes with the spot market acting as the point of reference for the quotes provided.

It is worth mentioning that the spot FX market is also an OTC market dominated by the large international banks. In forex trading, spot price of a currency pair is influenced by several factors, such as the economic outlook and geopolitical events in that region, as well as news data releases which may be perceived positively or negatively by the market.

Contracts for difference CFDs , allow traders to buy go long or sell go short , and make profit or loss from price movements, without having to physically purchase and exchange the underlying currency. FX is quoted in pairs, with each representing a global currency or economy. To put it simply, traders would go long if they believe that the base currency will rise in value against the term currency and would profit from an increase in price.

This pip value is used to determine the PnL profit or loss , based on how many pips you gain or lose in a trade, and is also used to display spread the difference between the bid and ask prices. In FX currency trading, fractional pricing allows us to offer tighter spreads and provide more accurate pricing. Diversify your investment portfolio by trading CFDs on more than just Forex. EN English. Create Live Account. Need Help? Visit our Help Section.

Login Register. Quick access. Sell Buy.

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